Physical theories are links between nomological variables and a primitive ontology. This is true for Newtonian mechanics, general relativity and quantum mechanics but also true for most alternative theories of gravitation, from Le Sage’s graviton to gravity as an entropic force. Assigning a cause to gravity is equivalent to making a metaphysical commitment about the nature of reality and this is ultimately related to whether our world is autonomous or not. Due to the theory underdetermination problem, we may never find out the true cause of gravity by experimentation alone.
Can 1 x 1 be equal to 2?
There is a possibility that our physical reality is virtual in the sense that it was created already in the form of a simulation or it is a manifestation of an interaction with another level of reality or mechanism. If this is the case, then there may be only a limited material horizon and any extensions of it are created on demand.
The term “virtual” is used to describe the state of being such without actually being such. In this context, virtual reality can be defined as the state of being real without actually being real. The problem with such a definition is with the inference made about the state of reality or virtual reality.
There is a growing number of people that believe the Earth is flat. As inequality, poverty and misery increase in the world due to failed economic policies and impact of technological innovation, more people are compelled to question science and accepted paradigms as a way of revolt.
Some natural random variables have a normal distribution, some have Pareto distribution and some power law distribution. For example, height of humans is normally distributed, income has Pareto distribution and stock market returns follow some other power law distribution. Only some random processes have uniform distribution when the outcomes are equally likely, e.g. a coin toss.
The Parmenides Foundation is founded on the principle that “In an increasingly complex and constantly changing knowledge society thinking is the key success factor in economics, politics and education.” That principle clashes with anti-realist accounts of truth.
The probability of ruin of unhedged stock market investments is always greater than zero. This implies that in a sufficiently long interval of time, any unhedged investment in the stock market will be ruined. Therefore, unhedged investments in stocks are motivated by greed and wishful thinking as investors hope that that will sell for profit before the uncle point. Recent history proves this is not the case.